HPV vaccine: How it protects against cervical cancer and who can get i…

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New research has found the HPV vaccine can reduce situations of cervical cancer by nearly 90%.

Cervical cancer is the fourth most shared cancer in women around the world, killing more than 300,000 each year.

How does the HPV vaccine protect against cancer?

The HPV vaccine – called Gardasil – protects against nine types of HPV.

They include two that cause nearly all situations of cervical cancer, those that cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.

Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at the minimum 10 years, although experts expect protection to last much longer.

Published in the Lancet, it looked at what happened after the vaccine was introduced for girls in England in 2008.

Who can be given the HPV vaccine?

The HPV vaccine works best if girls and boys get it before they come into contact with HPV.

That’s because the vaccine can only prevent an infection, it cannot rid the body of the virus once it has been caught.

The viruses are so extensive that immunisation has to be aimed at children before they become sexually active.

What is HPV?

HPV (short for human papillomavirus) is the name for a very shared group of viruses.

Most people, however, will not know they’re infected and their bodies will get rid of the virus without treatment.

High-risk types of HPV, however, can cause abnormal tissue growth which can rule to cancers.

Who gets HPV and is it sexually transmitted?

It is very easy to pick up, being very contagious, and is spread by close skin-to-skin contact.

Up to 80% of people are exposed to HPV by the age of 25.

In most situations people are infected for 18 months to two years.

It is not technically a sexually transmitted disease, as it is not spread by sexual fluids, in the same way as diseases such as gonorrhoea.

However it is often transmitted during sexual contact, including touching.

How extensive is the rollout of the HPV vaccine around the world?

Almost 90% of cervical cancer deaths are in low- and middle-income countries, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

In these countries, cervical cancer is often not identified until it has further progressive and symptoms develop.

Over a hundred countries have now introduced HPV vaccination.

However, as of 2020, less than 25% of low-income and under 30% of lower middle-income countries had introduced the vaccine, compared with 85% of high-income countries.

Cervical cancer is the second most shared cancer among women in Africa, but it is the deadliest, the WHO says.

Inadequate screening programmes, limited access to treatment sets and vaccine hesitancy all contribute to this.

In the first year it reached nine out 10 girls eligible for the vaccine, a consequence that experts cite as a form for other countries.

How do you get the vaccine in the UK?

Two injections are given into the upper arm spaced at the minimum six months apart.

  • In England and Wales, girls and boys aged 12 to 13 years are ordinarily offered their first HPV vaccination in Year 8. The second measure is offered six to 24 months later
  • In Scotland, pupils receive the vaccination aged 11 to 13 years in S1
  • In Northern Ireland pupils receive the vaccination aged 11 to 12 years old in Year 8.

According to the NHS, children who miss the HGV vaccine in Year 8 will be offered it in the next academic year. All young people can also have the vaccine free on the NHS until their 25th birthday.

Should women nevertheless attend for cervical screening?

Although the vaccine appears to dramatically reduce the chances of developing cervical cancer, it does not protect against all types of HPV.

So it is important that women also have regular cervical smears once they reach the age of 25.

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